In 1804 the free Republic of Haiti was declared in almost unimaginable triumph: hard to exaggerate the glory of that birth. Hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans had labored to make Saint-Domingue, as Haiti was then known, the richest colony on earth, a vastly productive slave-powered factory producing tons upon tons of sugar cane, the 18th-century’s great cash crop. For pre-Revolutionary France, Haiti was an inexhaustible cash cow, floating much of its economy. Generation after generation, the second sons of the great French families took ship for Saint-Domingue to preside over the sugar plantations, enjoy the favors of enslaved African women and make their fortunes.

L'indemnité de Saint-Domingue: « Dette d'indépendance » ou « rançon de l'esclavage »?

In August !7 !, a slave revolt erupted in Saint-Domingue, richest colony of the Americas. France sent two commissioners to restore peace in this insurgent area. Under the threat of revolution, they declared the abolition of slavery in !7 3. This decision was rati ed by the French Convention on 4 February !7 4. Revocation of this abolition act in !’() by Napoléon Bonaparte had no effect on the situation of slaves in Saint-Domingue, which proclaimed its independence ! January !’ (4. This episode gave birth to the rst black state of the Americas, baptised under its old Amerindian name “Haïti.” The new republic was recognized as an independent state more than )( years later.

Jefferson and Haiti


I N JANUARY 1802 THE FRENCH CAPTAIN-GENERAL, CHARLES LECLERC, arrived at Samami Bay in the West Indian island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles. The following month the general occupied the  charred city of Cap Fran ois, of Saint Domingue, or present-day Haiti, which had been burned by its fleeing black inhabitants. France's First Consul, Napoleon Bona­ parte, had decided to reduce the colony's black leader, Toussaint  L'Ouverture, to reestablish the old regime, and to recover the rich  colony inhabited by 500,000 blacks from their leaders, whom he deri­ sively called "gilded Africans." Over the next twenty-one months,  Bonaparte added more than twenty thousand troops to Leclerc's army, but in November 1803 the survivors of the French expedition, seven  thousand in number, were compelled to withdraw. 

Hegel and Haiti

By the eighteenth century, slavery had become the root metaphor of Western political philosophy, connoting everything that was evil about  power relations. 1 Freedom, its conceptual antithesis, was considered by  Enlightenment thinkers as the highest and universal political value. Yet  this political metaphor began to take root at precisely the time that economic practice of slavey-the systematic, highly sophisticated capi­talist enslavement of non-Europeans as a labor force in the colonies-was  increasing quantitatively and intensifying qualitatively to the point that by the mid-eighteenth century it came to underwrite the entire economic  system of the West, paradoxically facilitating the global spread of the very  Enlightenment ideals that were in such fundamental contradiction to it.

The Haitian revolution and the struggle against slavery- ch…e, and silence

This article responds, among other things, to the invitation from  UNESCO to reflect on coming to terms with the slave trade  and slavery. In my view, this is best done  by engaging  the facts of history  through research,  analysis,  and inter- pretation targeting specific experiences  both  in the actual  administration and  operation of the trade  and in its consequences

cultural assertions (belief-systems,  religion,  lan- guage,  the  arts  of  the  imagination, individual and collective), produces alternative lifestyles, a sense  of  self  (ontology), a  view  of  the  world (cosmology), a sense of knowing (epistemology), ethnic  identity.  These  are  themselves  points  of power  offering  alternative rules  of representa- tion  and  engagement in normal relations. This, of course, results in contestation, which remains the dynamic of African diasporic existence in the Americas,   where   Europe

The Roots of Early Black Nationalism- Northern African Am…enth Century

This article was downloaded by: [Florida International University] On: 13 October 2013, At: 19:03

Publisher: Routledge

Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies

Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:

<<  1 [2


Haitian Heritage Musem.png
Musee Ogie Foonbrum.png

Funded by W.K. Kellogg Foundation